However, just because you restore an automobile in does not mean it will ride and drive like one designed in the 21st century.
Half a century of engineering advancement can have a profound impact on design in any field, and the automotive realm is certainly no exception to the rule. While the desire to maintain originality is alluring for many, the benefits of a modern chassis are vast.
In some situations, it also allows builders to put cars back on the road that might otherwise be too far gone. Modern chassis design allows builders to give vintage performance cars a level of chassis rigidity, suspension sophistication, steering response, braking capability, and tire compatibility that racers only could have dreamed of back in the s.
What we do is design a brand new platform that is much more rigid than the original chassis and utilize modern-day types of suspension, which in turn provides ride and handling qualities that most people are expecting when they build a hot rod or muscle car.
Chris Alston's Chassisworks' gStreet Camaro system modernizes the vehicle from the ground up, starting with a full box tube frame and prefabricated floors that allow builders to install up to mm tread out back, along with a range of different adjustable front- and rear-suspension setups, rack-and-pinion steering, big-brake kits, and modern powertrains, if they so choose.
Compared side-by-side, the improvements offered by modern chassis components are obvious. It sort of relied on the body itself to provide any sort of rigidity, and the chassis was really just there to mount the engine and suspension points.
A lot of these vehicles originally just used a stamped-steel-chassis design that had rudimentary open-channel cross members, either riveted or spot-welded at the front and rear. There was very little between the front and rear suspension to make that frame rigid. Morrison points out that even basic modern economy cars are light-years ahead of the most capable machines that came out of Detroit back in the day, and that can catch some folks off-guard.
Factory-produced vehicles are designed and manufactured to a specific cost to the OEM, and 50 years ago, that translated to some significant compromises. Modern chassis components can address many of those potential issues while maintaining the car's original style. Modern manufacturing gives you incredible control over the accuracy of the manufacturing process, and that alone makes a big difference behind the wheel.
When was the last time you were on the freeway with a football field of clearance in front of you? Though the benefits of these upgrades are perhaps most obvious in performance and motorsport context, they'll also provide a much more drivable and predictable vehicle for around-town cruising as well. The manufacturing tolerances on those cars were very loose, to say the least. Leaf-spring systems were made to be cheap, and they were given multiple tasks — controlling the torque reaction, the lateral location of the housing, etc.
The suspensions that we use basically split up those functions so that we can build a specialized component to handle those tasks more effectively.
How Modern Chassis Design Breathes New Life Into Vintage Performance
That can translate to a vehicle that hooks up better at the drag strip, or corners with more tenacity on a road course, or simply cruises more comfortably and confidently around town and out on the highway, depending on what the customer wants from the build. Here, a steering rack is tested for the correct amount of resistance, per customer specification, before being installed in the vehicle.
The benefits of added chassis rigidity are also substantial, as they improve the performance of all of the components that are bolted to it.The complexity of designing and building the chassis and the ambiguity in detecting damaging in a monocoque leads most amateur designers to stick with the spaceframe chassis —easier to design, build and operate.
The tools and learning curve are far easier to manage as well. Yet, if you are interested in the monocoque chassisdo go out and learn as much as you can and experiment with the techniques of design and fabrication. If a career in engineering is your goal, then knowledge of both spaceframe design and monocoque design will serve you well in many fields. Before building your vehicle, consider building models to aid in visualizing design. Some may prefer to stick with computer tools like FEA Finite Element Analysis software, but for sheer hands-on visualization, we recommend building your own balsa spaceframe models or using paper or crafts materials to form a monocoque.
Diagram MOD1. Designing a chassisbe it spaceframe or monocoque requires an understanding of the right materials and their engineering properties. Most modern spaceframes are built using steel structural tubing in gradesor chromoly. The first two grades are considered mild steel with sufficient strength and toughness for amateur car builders.
These grades are not affected by welding heat and do not require post-welding heat treatment. The chromoly grade, while stronger than mild steel, does require post-welding heat treatment to restore its mechanical properties. Aluminum has been used in spaceframe design and can provide weight savings but depending on the grade, it may or may not be weldable.
The fatigue life and strength should be understood before selecting aluminum as your spaceframe material. For monocoque builders, the materials most often used today is fiber reinforced plastic FRP. The fiber can be anything from fiberglass to carbon fiber, depending on the requirement to save weight. The plastic is generally 2-part epoxy. Builders make use of composite sandwich structures by laminating FRP over a honeycomb structure.
Diagram SM1. While thicker than steel, panels made of other materials can provide equivalent strength while weighing less. The selection of structural shapes for spaceframe construction provides the designer with flexibility in how they optimize their chassis designs. In diagram SS1 below, the most popular shapes are shown:.The chassis or frame is a structure which locates and mounts all other parts of the vehicle.
It also provides a protected space for the occupant s. There are multiple types of chassis but all of them can be classified into one of two approaches:. Both approaches can provide a structure capable of mounting other vehicle components, but each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The Spaceframe chassis uses numerous cut and shaped pieces of structural metal tubing usually steel joined together to form a strong framework.
Car Chassis Basics, How-To & Design Tips ~ FREE!
Diagram SF1. The principle of spaceframe design is to use triangulation of the tubes to create a rigid structure. Diagrams SF2 and SF3 below show how triangulation is used to rigidize a structure:. Diagram SF2. An untriangulated box One missing its sides is easily warped. An un-triangulated box has very little strength. You can see this in action above. As the hand pushes against the corner of the box, the shape warps into a parallelogram. Diagram SF3. A box with a cross-member forms two triangles Shown in red and is said to be triangulated.
The force applied to the box is trying to pull the cross-member apart. In diagram SF3 above, the tube is being pulled in tension as if the corners of the box to where it is attached were trying to tear it apart.
Triangulation can also work with tubes in compression. However the ideal design always has the member tubes working in tension which provides far superior strength to tubes working in compression. Diagram SF4 below shows how the load being applied is now attempting to crush or compress the tube instead of tearing it apart. Because of the reduced strength in compression, buckling can become an issue.
Diagram SF4. A triangulated box. The force applied to the box compresses the cross-member, potentially buckling it if the force is sufficient. Returning to diagram SF1, there are numerous examples in this diagram of how open box tube structures have been triangulated to create a much more rigid chassis.
The diagram also shows suspension and other mounting brackets. Spaceframes usually use square or round tubing. Square tube is easier to work with because cutting it involves straight cuts at a particular angle.Journal of Measurements in Engineering, Vol.
Received 1 November ; received in revised form 10 December ; accepted 24 December ; published 31 December The article describes important stage of the vehicle production, which is design of chassis and frames. There is some historical information for showing development in vehicle production. Many of vehicles properties are strictly connected with the chassis or frame. Dynamic properties and static or geometric parameters of the vehicle depends on chassis or frames.
It was described an interesting method IPPD adopt to automotive industry. Also some examples of SSS for design concept in vehicle production have been depicted. Some short information about chassis and frames types used in special vehicles can be helpful for young engineers or technical students.
These issues are very important for vehicle designers and engineers and has to be take into focused consideration in all productions processes, especially during assumptions and constructions of chassis or frames. Automotive industry is one of the biggest and most innovative in total industry area. Almost all manufactured cars and vehicle are made by mass production but in the very beginning the cars were produced by the same technologies of hand craftsmanship that had been used for centuries for the construction of horse-drawn carriages.
Due to the issue of large number of components and assembly rely on joining items the procedure has been changed.
It has been started by Henry Ford who developed the techniques of mass production based on preliminary production of rifles during American Civil War. Thus the motor industry from small workshops producing hand-build vehicle changed into huge corporation with mass production techniques with components supply chain.
Second main factor of changing the production processes and techniques was construction development. From the first construction based on horse-drawn carriages with wooden chassis and framework to the modern constructions of steel, lightweight steel or even ULSAB — Ultra Lightweight Steel Auto Body or fiber constructions. In addition to the direct engineering issues the vehicle designer needs to consider the political issues such as pollution and recycling.
Thus the research on materials of engine and vehicle body in terms of environmental and safety are constant conducted. The novel materials cause changes in construction due to the different physical and mechanical properties . First commercial vehicles lorries and buses were based on steam-powered carriages.
The typical example was the steam-engined road vehicle based on railway technology. By the time of First and Second World War the commercial road vehicle industry has developed. One of the most specific group of commercial vehicles are special heavy vehicles operating often in off-road conditions in different environment and on irregular ground surface.A platform chassis is a form of automobile chassis constructed as a flat plate or platform.
A platform chassis is a separate chassis for a car or small vehicle. It is distinguished from other forms of chassis by being arranged as largely a single flat steel sheet, usually with additional box section stiffeners. Platform chassis developed after the ladder chassis or cruciform chassis designs in the s, once car bodies began to be pressed from large steel sheets, rather than the chassis assembled from rolled channel sections.
As a semi-monocoque they are still a form of body-on-frame construction, rather than a monocoque or unibody where the bodyshell and chassis are integrated into one component. Although both body and platform chassis are each made from similar pressed steel panels welded together, they were often bolted as the final two units and so may still be separable after construction. Achieving sufficient rigidity is difficult with a pure platform and so they are usually extended vertically with some form of box or tube section.
This can be either a perimeter frame e. Renault 4 or a central spine e. VW Beetle. Longitudinal rigidity is more critical than transverse rigidity and so this stiffening is mostly as front to back girders, rather than crosswise.
The diaphragm sheet is usually pressed into shallow stiffening ridges as well, but these are mostly to stop drumming noise and are too minor to provide major structural strength. Platforms are usually the full width of the car, but shorter and only span the length between the wheels. Suspension attachments for the wheels and the weight of the engine and transmission are carried on additional subframes beyond this.
These subframes may be formed of box section tubes welded on to the chassis, deep-drawn box sections formed from sheet, or as separate subframes that are bolted in place. Platform chassis have been used for both rear-wheel drive Beetle and front-wheel drive Renault layouts.
TOURING FRAMES, 09+
However they keep the engine at the driven end, with a transaxlerather than using the propeller shaft of the Hotchkiss layout of front-engine, rear-drive that was universal with chassis designs beforehand. This avoided transmitting the propeller shaft torque through the platform. Where a propeller shaft has been used, these have been for rare examples with four-wheel drive.
Attaching the suspension to a platform chassis requires independent suspension and encourages the use of suspension features such as torsion bars or trailing arms.
As the chassis is in a single plane, it would be difficult to use a solid axle, without raising the entire platform above the axle line. It is also difficult to arrange spring attachments for springs such as half-elliptic springs requiring distance fore and aft of the axle line, or for coil spring or strut suspensions needing an attachment point raised vertically above the platform.
Instead, springs such as torsion bars are used. Whether these are transverse or longitudinal, they lie in the horizontal plane of the platform and so can be worked in to such a chassis. Other torsion-based systems, such as twist-beam rear suspensionmay be used as well for front-wheel drive cars with light rears. The Volkswagen Type 1 Beetle used a platform chassis, with independent torsion bar suspension at each end.Providing deep engineering expertise to address challenges in thermal design, signal integrity, complex interconnection and power management technologies, Atrenne is the partner of choice for enclosuresbackplanessystem integration and application-specific engineering solutions.
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Upon the creation of a new model, you will be placed in this page. This section of the car designer is the model designer. This is where you will build the backbone of your car s. On the upper left corner, you can set any model year you desire from through To the right of the year selector, you will find the name of your model by default, a placeholder name of Model is usedthe name of your car trimthe engine family name, and engine variant name.
On the top right of the screen is a button representing game settings, photo studio, manual save, and exit options. Immediately below these buttons are options and filters that change how the car bodies are sorted and what variants will show up. Car bodies can be filtered out based on how old they are, what body type s they are, and available engine positions. The game currently has unique bodies and variants, and more are available through the Steam Workshop as mods.
Hovering your mouse cursor over the car bodies will reveal details about them, such as their wheelbase length, drag coefficient, front and rear lift, available engine positions, and the file name of each car body. Car bodies exist as families, some families only having one body style variant, while others such as the highlighted 2. This means you can built a large variety of cars on top of the same chassis.
In the real world, this is commonly done in order to cut down on costs. When designing a chassis, you are decided how your car will be built. This includes the materials and architecture of the chassis, and the geometry of the suspension.
Your choices here will greatly affect what your car does, how much it will cost to build, and how it performs. The car's body panels are like the outer skin of the car. They are what give the car its external shape, and include parts such as fenders, quarter panels, doors, rocker panels, hood, trunk and roof.
The car's chassis type describes how its body is constructed. These methods impact how heavy the car is, what its purpose will be, and what materials are available for use in the chassis. The chassis type will affect available choices for engine placement and suspension geometry.
A ladder chassis, otherwise known as a body-on-frame chassis, dates back to the old days of horse-drawn carriages. The car's body and frame are two separate objects. The frame itself is built from thick steel rails, joined together with three metal ribs in the center. The body is mounted on top of the frame. This construction method has many advantages. For one, it is the cheapest and simplest construction method. Secondly, this method gives the car great offroad capability, as the rugged frame protects the body from the ground.